Does the “dominant purpose” of a communication have to be the giving or seeking of legal advice in order for it to be privileged?

Legal advice privilege is the right to withhold disclosure of documents or information. It operates so that a person may consult their lawyer in confidence and so what is said will never be revealed without their consent. The principle attaches to all communications made in confidence between solicitors and their

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Early-exit fees cause misery for Virgin Media

Failure to adopt best practice not enough to bring down Ofcom’s decision under judicial review appeal standard CAT dismisses Virgin Media’s appeal At the end of 2018 Ofcom fined Virgin Media £7 million for breaching two regulatory obligations, when it overcharged its customers who wanted to leave its contracts early,

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Google fined

The Commission Fines Google for a Third Time: A Turning Point for Competition Enforcement and Digital Platforms?

The European Commission has fined Google €1.49 billion ($1.69 billion) for “abusive practices in online advertising.” That is in addition to the $5 billion and $2.4 billion fines it handed to Google in 2018 and 2017 for other anti-competitive practices. Competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google “shielded itself from competitive pressure” via exclusive advertising

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Abuse of Dominance in the UK Courts

We hear much about cartel damages actions – claims by those harmed when operators in the marketplace have concerted to set prices at an artificially high level, resulting in overpayments and restricted competition in the marketplace. However, another area where it is possible to raise a claim is where an

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