Google fined

The Commission Fines Google for a Third Time: A Turning Point for Competition Enforcement and Digital Platforms?

The European Commission has fined Google €1.49 billion ($1.69 billion) for “abusive practices in online advertising.” That is in addition to the $5 billion and $2.4 billion fines it handed to Google in 2018 and 2017 for other anti-competitive practices. Competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google “shielded itself from competitive pressure” via exclusive advertising

Share our insights
Continue reading

CMA’s latest Guidance on Requests for Internal Documents in Merger Investigations

While investigating a merger, the Competition & Markets Authority (‘CMA’) has often requested the merging parties to provide their internal documents, that is, those documents generated internally by an organisation during the ordinary course of its business. These internal documents can include study reports, presentations, emails, hand-written notes etc., irrespective

Share our insights
Continue reading
Sewage farm and water works

The Creation of a “Super-Regulator” for the Utilities Sector: Moving the Deck Chairs?

Following the Autumn 2018 Budget, the Government has recently launched a consultation on how to encourage greater innovation in the utilities sectors. Amongst those measures is a review by the National Infrastructure Committee (NIC) into the operation of UK regulators and the potential establishment of a multi-sector “super-regulator” for utilities.

Share our insights
Continue reading